Question: How Does Saxitoxin Affect The Nervous System?

How do you prevent saxitoxin?

To avoid Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, members of the public are advised to observe the following:Buy shellfish from reliable and licensed seafood shops;Remove the viscera, gonads and roe before cooking;Eat a smaller amount of shellfish in any one meal and avoid consuming the cooking liquid;More items…•.

Which toxin is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning?

PSP is a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins.

What types of organisms are responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning?

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) is caused by eating shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, a toxin produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium 1. Saxitoxins, also known as PSP toxins, cause symptoms related to the nervous system.

How long does paralytic shellfish poisoning last?

In patients with mild to moderate poisoning, effects resolve over 2-3 days, but in severe cases, weakness may persist for up to a week. In most fatalities, death occurs rapidly, typically within 12 hours.

What does Brevetoxin cause?

Brevetoxins are neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to disruption of normal neurological processes and causing the illness clinically described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). …

What happens when sodium channels are blocked?

Complete block of sodium channels would be lethal. However, these drugs selectively block sodium channels in depolarized and/or rapidly firing cells, such as axons carrying high-intensity pain information and rapidly firing nerve and cardiac muscle cells that drive epileptic seizures or cardiac arrhythmias.

How does saxitoxin cause paralysis?

Saxitoxin, like CTX and tetrodotoxin, causes paralysis by blocking sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. It is 50 times more potent than curare. Saxitoxin and other toxins that cause PSP are heat stable and are not destroyed by normal cooking procedures, marinating, or freezing.

What does a saxitoxin do to an organism like a fish or human?

Saxitoxin is a neurotoxin that acts as a selective, reversible, voltage-gated sodium channel blocker. One of the most potent known natural toxins, it acts on the voltage-gated sodium channels of neurons, preventing normal cellular function and leading to paralysis.

Why is saxitoxin May fatal to humans?

The long-established molecular target of saxitoxin is the voltage-gated sodium channel in nerve and muscle cells, to which it binds with high affinity and can result in death via respiratory paralysis [29].

Can saxitoxin kill you?

Saxitoxin is lethal at concentrations 1,000 times lower than is cyanide. … When ingested by humans, saxitoxin causes paralytic shellfish poisoning, or PSP, symptoms of which include tingling, numbness, and, if consumed in high enough quantities, paralysis, asphyxiation and death.

What is another name for the paralytic shellfish toxins?

What is Paralytic Shellfish Poison? Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) is a naturally occurring marine biotoxin that is produced by some species of microscopic algae. Shellfish eat these algae and can retain the toxin. People can become ill from eating shellfish contaminated with Paralytic Shellfish Poison.

What is TTX poison?

DESCRIPTION: Tetrodotoxin is an extremely potent poison (toxin) found mainly in the liver and sex organs (gonads) of some fish, such as puffer fish, globefish, and toadfish (order Tetraodontiformes) and in some amphibian, octopus, and shellfish species. … Tetrodotoxin poisoning can be fatal.